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Mentone Girls' Grammar School | Kerferd Library

Volcanoes: Hazards

Geography / Levels 7 and 8 / Geographical Knowledge / Landforms and landscapes | ACHGK050 | VCGGK121

Source: Black, S. (2019).

Referencing Notice Don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For help see the Junior School or Senior School referencing guides, and / or CiteMaker.
Resource Key

When accessing content use the numbers below to guide you:

LEVEL

Brief, basic information laid out in an easy-to-read format. May use informal language. (Includes most news articles)

LEVEL

Provides additional background information and further reading. Introduces some subject-specific language.

Level 3 resourceLEVEL

Lengthy, detailed information. Frequently uses technical/subject-specific language. (Includes most analytical articles)

Volcanoes | Hazards: Articles

Level 2Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"Brad Scott [from GNS Science New Zealand] describes the different volcano types and potential threats in New Zealand." (GNS Science, 2012)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation:GNS Science (2012) or (GNS Science, 2012)
Bibliography / Reference list: GNS Science (2012). Volcanic Hazards in New Zealand [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BC-Vk4EzMbg

Volcanoes | Types of hazards

Level 1ArticlesEarthquake - "A sudden violent shaking of the ground, typically causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the earth's crust or volcanic action." (Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"Earthquakes serve as an early warning sign for volcanic eruptions, as well as a marker for the location of moving magma. This animation shows magma movement beneath a volcano, simulated seismograms, volcanic tremor and seismicity associated with an impending eruption." (United States Geological Survey, 2013)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: United States Geological Survey (2013) or (United States Geological Survey, 2013)
Bibliography / Reference list: United States Geological Survey (2013). Volcanic Monitoring Animations #3: Earthquakes, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/JypTLDLABzM

Level 1ArticlesEruption - "An act or instance of erupting. ‘the eruption of Vesuvius’" (Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Level 2 resourceImages

Cartoon explaining the D-F (Dispersion-Fragmentation) plot used to classify volcanic eruption styles. a) low explosiveness eruption types, b) high explosiveness eruption types.

Image from Chiara Cingottini, DensityDesign Research Lab. Volcanologists classify the styles of volcanic eruptions according to the explosiveness and height of the eruption column (dispersal), using a D–F (Dispersion–Fragmentation) plot. The major eruption types, in order of increasing explosiveness, are: Icelandic, Hawaiian, Strombolian, Vulcanian, Sub–Plinian, Plinian and Ultra–Plinian. Volcanic eruptions involving water include Surtseyan and Phreatoplinian types and fall on a different part of the D–F plot.

Source: Geoscience Australia. (2018). Roach I & Bear-Crozier A (Eds.). Volcanoes Teacher notes and student activities (p.15). Retrieved from https://ecat.ga.gov.au/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog. search#/metadata/100760

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"Strong strombolian explosion from Batu Tara volcano (Flores Sea, Indonesia) on the evening of 2 July 2015. The eruption is preceded by a gradual build-up with increasing degassing and rockfalls as a result of inflation of the crater. Immediately before the explosion, glow becomes visible as the magma is about to break through the crust sealing the vent." (Volcano Discovery, 2015)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Volcano Discovery (2015) or (Volcano Discovery, 2015)
Bibliography / Reference list: Volcano Discovery, (2015). Spectacular volcanic eruption at Batu Tara volcano, Indonesia [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/CsA05jdCj0M

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Open University (2011) or (Open University, 2011)
Bibliography / Reference list: Open University, (2011). Predicting Volcanoes [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/tvPL2lc1XcY

"Big Volcanic eruptions are very rare compared to the duration of a human life. Only indications of passed catastrophes can give us a clue what could happen in future. An epidemic in Europe, Sulphur sediments found in the ice of Greenland and a forever disappeared nation – could a volcano connect all these things? Scientists reconstruct passed catastrophes and explain the power of the stone giants." (Hazards and Catastrophes, 2017)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Hazards and Catastrophes (2017) or (Hazards and Catastrophes, 2017)
Bibliography / Reference list: Hazards and Catastrophes (2017). The Power of Volcanoes Pt. 2: In the Shade of burning Mountains, [eVideo]. ZDF Enterprises. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/gzJ5oy-DBoA

Level 1ArticlesLava - "Hot molten or semi-fluid rock erupted from a volcano or fissure, or solid rock resulting from cooling of this." 
(Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Magma - "Hot fluid or semi-fluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed on cooling."
(Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"In this July 14, 2018, video captured by the UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) team, lava was erupting from within the 120-foot-high fissure 8 cinder cone built of chilled lava fragments. Lava emerging from the cone was traveling about 13-16 miles per hour, flowing freely over a small set of cascades (rapids) and into a perched channel that was as much as 50 feet above the ground surface. The fissure 8 lava flow channel extends about 8 miles to the active ocean entry. " (U.S. Geological Survey, 2018)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation:U.S. Geological Survey (2018) or (U.S. Geological Survey, 2018)
Bibliography / Reference list: U.S. Geological Survey (2018). Kīlaueau Volcano — Lava Flow Aerial [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mSTEXd_mcLQ

Level 1ArticlesLahar - "A destructive mudflow on the slopes of a volcano." (Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"Lahars are fast moving volcanic mudflows that can occur on Ruapehu either when the crater lake wall collapses, or during an eruption." (GNS Science, 2015)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation:GNS Science (2015) or (GNS Science, 2015)
Bibliography / Reference list: GNS Science (2015). Lahars on Ruapehu Volcano [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/B1n8O84TFc0

Level 1Articles Pyroclastic flow - "A dense, destructive mass of very hot ash, lava fragments, and gases ejected explosively from a volcano and typically flowing at great speed." (Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

When a volcano erupts, pyroclastic flows are often the biggest danger to anyone nearby. These fast-flowing currents of rock, ash and extremely hot gas are extremely difficult to study, so researchers in New Zealand created their own. By closely studying pyroclastic flows in their specially-made lab, they identified a very thin layer of gas that helps explain how this volcanic phenomenon moves so fast and can travel so far." (Nature.com, 2019)

Read the research paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41561-019-0338-2

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Nature.com, (2019) or (Nature.com, 2019)
Bibliography / Reference list: Nature.com, (2019). Pyroclastic flows: The secret of their deadly speed , [eVideo]. Nature.com. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/hvuP7kuX7Dk

Level 1Articles Tephra - "Rock fragments and particles ejected by a volcanic eruption." (Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

What's Ash Anyway? (Smithsonian, 2019)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Smithsonian (2012) or (Smithsonian, 2012)
Bibliography / Reference list: Smithsonian, (2012). What's Ash Anyway?, [eVideo]. Smithsonian. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BjwdZQbHR6k

Level 1Articles Tsunami - "A long, high sea wave caused by an earthquake or other disturbance." (Lexico, Oxford Dictionary online, n.d.)

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"The northern coast of Rakata Island, facing Anak Krakatau island, was hit by massive waves (up to approx 30 m high) during the catastrophic landslide of Anak Krakatau volcano's summit cone and the resulting tsunami on the evening of 22 Dec 2018. The entire beach and the slightly higher, up to 50 m wide forested platform behind it, separating it from the cliff, have been washed away and/or collapsed in landslides following the wave erosion. The forest and beach of Anak Krakatau also have gone." (Volcano Discovery, 2019)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Volcano Discovery (2019) or (Volcano Discovery, 2019)
Bibliography / Reference list: Volcano Discovery, (2018). Dramatic tsunami effects: Rakata beach destroyed by Krakatoa tsunami [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/QbNT1nlmZbw

Level 1ArticlesVolcanic gas - "" (Britannica, n.d.)

Level 3

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"This animation shows how gases behave in magma and how an airplane-mounted UV spectrometer can measure gases in a volcanic plume." (U.S. Geological Survey, 2013)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation:U.S. Geological Survey (2013) or (U.S. Geological Survey, 2013)
Bibliography / Reference list: U.S. Geological Survey (2013). Volcano Monitoring Animation #2: Gas Monitoring [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/M5PFLHF3m64

"Karen Britten [From GNS Science New Zealand] flies over active volcanoes in New Zealand to measure the amount of volcanic gases being released into the atmosphere in tonnes per day." (GNS Science, 2015)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation:GNS Science (2013) or (GNS Science, 2013)
Bibliography / Reference list: GNS Science (2013). Volcano Gas Flights [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/GkvHJFgJxDE

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"In 1816, the Year Without a Summer left Europe destitute, hungry and recovering from the Napoleonic Wars. When Mount Tambora erupted the skies blackened, and young poets on a trip to Geneva became stuck indoors. Amongst them was Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein, influenced by tumultuous events and the enduring Greek myth of Prometheus." (Then & Now, 2018)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Then & Now (2018) or (Then & Now, 2018)
Bibliography / Reference list: Then & Now (2018). 1816: The Year Without a Summer, Prometheus & Frankenstein, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/4vHVh9ajhs0

"In the 6th century AD, large parts of the world were affected by mysterious weather events causing temperature drop, crop failures and famines. The series’ first episode analyzes how one single volcano probably caused “The Years Without Summer”, also known as Little Ice Age." (Hazards and Catastrophes, 2017)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Hazards and Catastrophes (2017) or (Hazards and Catastrophes, 2017)
Bibliography / Reference list: Hazards and Catastrophes (2017). The Power of Volcanoes Pt. 1: Years without Summer, [eVideo]. ZDF Enterprises. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/D7fR2Z880z8

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