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Mentone Girls' Grammar School | Kerferd Library

Volcanoes: Case Studies

Geography / Levels 7 and 8 / Geographical Knowledge / Landforms and landscapes | ACHGK050 | VCGGK121

Source: Black, S. (2019).

Referencing Notice Don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For help see the Junior School or Senior School referencing guides, and / or CiteMaker.
Resource Key

When accessing content use the numbers below to guide you:

LEVEL

Brief, basic information laid out in an easy-to-read format. May use informal language. (Includes most news articles)

LEVEL

Provides additional background information and further reading. Introduces some subject-specific language.

Level 3 resourceLEVEL

Lengthy, detailed information. Frequently uses technical/subject-specific language. (Includes most analytical articles)

Mt Toba, IndonesiaMt Toba, Indonesia
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 2019

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Mt Toba, IndonesiaVesuvius, Italy
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"The people of Pompeii ignored the warning signals from nearby Mt. Vesuvius. When the volcano finally erupted, it devastated the entire city, encasing Pompeii in ash for nearly 1500 years." (Twig Education, 2012)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Twig Education (2012) or (Twig Education, 2012)
Twig Education (2012). Geography Lesson: The Last Day of Pompeii, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/YIZ4aSKT3mo

Mt Toba, IndonesiaTambora, Indonesia
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"In 1816, the Year Without a Summer left Europe destitute, hungry and recovering from the Napoleonic Wars. When Mount Tambora erupted the skies blackened, and young poets on a trip to Geneva became stuck indoors. Amongst them was Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein, influenced by tumultuous events and the enduring Greek myth of Prometheus." (Then & Now, 2018)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Then & Now (2018) or (Then & Now, 2018)
Bibliography / Reference list: Then & Now (2018). 1816: The Year Without a Summer, Prometheus & Frankenstein, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/4vHVh9ajhs0

Mt Toba, IndonesiaKrakatoa, Indonesia
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"Anak Krakatau volcanic activity between 24.-26.Oct.2018. All explosions filmed in real time, even at night ! Note abundant volcanic lightning visible at night. Also lavabombs hitting into the sea and causing fires inside the forest. Daylight explosions with view into the crater from drone. Video courtesy & copyright: Martin Rietze." (Rietze, 2018)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Rietze (2018) or (Rietze, 2018)
Bibliography / Reference list: Rietze, M. (2018). Krakatau volcano - spectacular explosions at day and night [eVideo]. Volcano Discovery. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/-5U1p1pOzeA

"The northern coast of Rakata Island, facing Anak Krakatau island, was hit by massive waves (up to approx 30 m high) during the catastrophic landslide of Anak Krakatau volcano's summit cone and the resulting tsunami on the evening of 22 Dec 2018. The entire beach and the slightly higher, up to 50 m wide forested platform behind it, separating it from the cliff, have been washed away and/or collapsed in landslides following the wave erosion. The forest and beach of Anak Krakatau also have gone." (Volcano Discovery, 2019)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Volcano Discovery (2019) or (Volcano Discovery, 2019)
Bibliography / Reference list: Volcano Discovery, (2018). Dramatic tsunami effects: Rakata beach destroyed by Krakatoa tsunami [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/QbNT1nlmZbw

Mt Toba, IndonesiaMt Pelée, Martinique
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Mt Toba, IndonesiaMt St Helen's, USA
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"On May 18, 1980, the Mount St. Helens became the largest and most destructive volcanic eruption in U.S. history. By the end of its cycle of fire and fury, 57 people had died. "(Smithsonian, 2017)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Smithsonian (2017) or (Smithsonian, 2017)
Bibliography / Reference list: Smithsonian, (2017). Footage of the 1980 Mount St. Helens Eruption, [eVideo]. Smithsonian. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/AYla6q3is6w

"On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens in Washington State erupted in the most explosive volcanic event in U.S. history. Fifty-seven people and countless animals died, a forest was leveled, and ash blanketed the region as far away as Minnesota." (National Geographic, 2016)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: National Geographic (2016) or (National Geographic, 2016)
Bibliography / Reference list: National Geographic (2016). Today I Learned: Mount St. Helens Has a Baby Volcano Inside It [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/D0Lx2IsLblM

Mt Toba, IndonesiaNevado del Ruiz, Colombia
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Mt Toba, IndonesiaPinatubo, Philippines
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Mt Toba, IndonesiaEyjafjallajökul, Iceland
  • Elevation: 2,157 metres
  • Latitude: 2.58°N
  • Longitude: 2.58°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Dacite, Rhyolite, Trachyandesite / Basaltic Trachyandesite, Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
  • Last major eruption: 75,000 BP (source: VOGRIPA)

Population

  • Within 5 km: 125,908
  • Within 10 km: 125,908
  • Within 30 km: 168,995
  • Within 1,000 km: 3,437,177

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Toba (261090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=261090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Mt Toba, IndonesiaPopocatépetl, Mexico
  • Elevation: 5,393 metres
  • Latitude: 19.023°N
  • Longitude: 98.622°N
  • Volcano type: Caldera, Stratovolcano, Lava dome(s)
  • Rock type: Andesite / Basaltic Andesite, Dacite, Basalt / Picro-Basalt
  • Last major eruption: 2019 CE

Population

  • Within 5 km: 325
  • Within 10 km: 2,584
  • Within 30 km: 634,054
  • Within 1,000 km: 26,509,510

Citing and Referencing this information (Specific Smithsonian Volcano Profile Citation)

Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Popocatépetl (341090) in Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved from https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=341090

(Source: Global Volcanism Program, National History Museum, Smithsonian Institute)

Note
For more details see the following link from the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program:

Level 1Articles

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"A large explosion occurred in the evening of 21 June and lasted approx. 20 minutes, followed by intense ash emissions." (Volcano Discovery, 2019)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Volcano Discovery (2019) or (Volcano Discovery, 2019)
Bibliography / Reference list: Volcano Discovery (2019). Popocatépetl volcano erupts 21 June 2019 [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/f-CMKGXuask

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