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Study Skills

Resource Key

When accessing content use the numbers below to guide you:


Brief, basic information laid out in an easy-to-read format. May use informal language. (Includes most news articles)


Provides additional background information and further reading. Introduces some subject-specific language.

Level 3 resourceLEVEL

Lengthy, detailed information. Frequently uses technical/subject-specific language. (Includes most analytical articles)

Study skillsThis guide is designed to help students in years 6 to 10 understand what is an annotated bibliography and how to construct an annotated bibliography.  For students in years 10 and above, and in particularly students doing the VCE extended investigation subject, please refer to the advanced annotated bibliography help guide

An annotated bibliography is a list of the resources you have used to support your work. Unlike a reference list [bibliography], an annotated bibliography also includes a short summary and your evaluation. Ideally, your annotated bibliography should include a reflection that explains why you have used, or not used, the item in your own work.

Always check your rubric and ask your teacher if you need to submit a reference list [bibliography], or an annotated bibliography, with your submitted work.

Annotated Bibliography | Example

Level 1Key: (1) Citation: don't forget to use APA formatting for your citation. (2) Short summary: what is it about and what does it say. (3) Reflection: a very short explanation on how this item supports your work as well as why you used it, or why you did not use it.

[1.] Britannica, (n.d.). Ring of Fire. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from

[2.] This article from Encyclopedia Britannica gave me a simple overview about the ring of fire. [3] Because I had to write about one volcano, and the volcano I selected was Krakatoa which is located in the ring of fire, this was a really useful article.

[1.] Hamilton SL. Volcanoes. Minneapolis, Minn: Abdo Publishing; 2012. Retrieved from

[2.] This eBook gives a simple overview of major eruptions around the world. [3] Because I have to focus on one major eruption, and this book had information about Krakatoa, it was really useful for my assignment.

[1.] Olson, E. (2017). Volcanoes. [N.p.]: Sandcastle. Retrieved from

[2.] This eBook gives a simple overview of what is a volcano, what they look like, how they work, what is an eruption, and the impact volcanoes and eruptions have on people living nearby. [3] Though this book is very simple it gave me a good basic overview and starting point.

[1] Stoiber, R., & Jepsen, A. (1973). Sulfur Dioxide Contributions to the Atmosphere by Volcanoes. Science, 182(4112), 577-578. Retrieved from

[2] This article explains how much sulphur dioxide South American volcanoes emit in a day. [3] I did not use this article because it was written for teachers and VCE students, and went into too much scientific detail that was not required in my assignment.

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