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Mentone Girls' Grammar School | Kerferd Library

Senior School Referencing

Senior School help and support with academic integrity and referencing.

Source: Black, S. (2020).

Quotes

Updated for APA 7th edition

Senior School Referencing | Quotes: Introduction

APA StyleIn-text references (citations) and Reference lists (Bibliography) help you avoid plagiarism. When referencing the School uses APA 7th edition. APA is one of the more widely used referencing guidelines.

Use APA CiteMaker to build your references lists (bibliographies) as well as your in-text references (citations).

Referencing is a key part of the School's Academic Integrity policies and procedures. Copyright refers to who owns the work (text, images, data, etc.) you are using. Copyright and Creative Common licenses tell you if you have permission to use the other person's work and ideas.

Senior School referencing | Quotes: General guidelines

There are a number of different ways to use quotes in your work. Under the APA 7th edition guidelines there are:

  • Direct quotes: this is where you directly quote someone else’s word for word. If you are directly quoting some one you need to put there words in quotation marks ". You also need to include the in text citation at the end of the direct quote. APA recommends that (and this is an example of a direct quote) "It is best to paraphrase sources rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style." (APA Style, n.d.)

APA recommends that you "use direct quotations rather than paraphrasing; when reproducing an exact definition (see Section 6.22 of the Publication Manual),when an author has said something memorably or succinctly, or when you want to respond to exact wording (e.g., something someone said)". (APA, n.d.)

  • Indirect quotes: This is where you use another person's words or ideas by rewrite them in your own words. This is also known as a paraphrasing. When paraphrasing or using an indirect quote you do not use quotation marks but you do still need to include an in text reference.
  • Short quotes: Under APA 7th edition short quotes contain less than 40 words. Short quotes can be either direct quotes or indirect quotes.
  • Block quotes Under APA 7th edition short quotes (quotes containing more than 40 words) are formated as indented block quotes. Block quotes are always direct quotes. Use block quotes when it is important that you present a large section of someone else's text word for word. Block quotes should be used sparingly. Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation.

When quoting you also need to cite and reference your sources. See also:

Senior School referencing | Quotes: Examples

Direct quotes (quoting word for word)
Parenthetical citation:
“An unintended and almost literal decimation of Aboriginal people occurred as two different peoples and their cultures clashed, and the more powerful invader, bearing unfamiliar diseases, dispossessed indigenous peoples of their land.” (Broome, 2005, p. 92)
Narrative citation:
Broome (2005, p. 92) notes that “An unintended and almost literal decimation of Aboriginal people occurred as two different peoples and their cultures clashed, and the more powerful invader, bearing unfamiliar diseases, dispossessed indigenous peoples of their land.”
Indirect quotes (paraphrasing)
Parenthetical citation:
It was a clash of cultures. The more powerful invader, bearing unfamiliar diseases, and removing indigenous peoples from country, had the unintended consequence of decimating the Aboriginal population (Broome, 2005, p. 92)
Narrative citation:
Broome (2005, p. 92) notes that it was a clash of cultures. The more powerful invader, bearing unfamiliar diseases, and removing indigenous peoples from country, had the unintended consequence of decimating the Aboriginal population.
Block quotes

Format quotations of 40 words or more as block quotations:

  • Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation.
  • Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin.
  • Double-space the entire block quotation.
  • Do not add extra space before or after it.

In the followinng example the block quote is shown in red. Note the inclusion of the author, date published and page reference in the Parenthetical in-text citation.

In his book 'Aboriginal Victorians" Richard Broome notes that while the local Kulin people were intrigued by the European settlers they naturally engaged with the Europeans according to the own customs and expectations. For example, the Kulin did not initially engage with the Europeans with a European understanding of personal property rights.

Aboriginal people were also intrigued by the novelty of all before them. They stopped Europeans in the street to shake their hands and the whites responded positively. Aborigines were keen to understand the newcomers and gain access to the cargoes their ships disgorged. Aboriginal people were attracted to Melbourne in the same way that hunters and gatherers had always moved to the most accessible food sources. Presents of flour were preferable to hours of gathering and grinding seed. Gifts of offal were preferable to hunting their own meat down. And Melbourne offered novel stimulants—tea, sugar, tobacco—that their own diet lacked. The Kulin expected access to European food resources in accord with their ideas of reciprocity—whereby kin shared food and goods—and also because of the privileges they felt were their due as landowners. (Broome, 2005, p. 18)

Not surprisingly conflicts arose because both the Europeans and Kulin misunderstood each other’s expectations culture and expectations.

Senior School referencing | Quotes: Explore more

Senior School referencing | Quotes: Video

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Reference

In text reference / citation: Narrative citations: Scribbr (2019) Parenthetical citations: (Scribbr, 2019)
Bibliography / Reference list: Scribbr. (2019, October 23). How to Quote in Under 5 minutes [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/DhMl3eIcGbI

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