Source: Black, S. (2020).
In-text references (citations) and Reference lists (Bibliography) help you avoid plagiarism. When referencing the School uses APA 7th edition. APA is one of the more widely used referencing guidelines.
Use APA CiteMaker to build your references lists (bibliographies) as well as your in-text references (citations).
Referencing is a key part of the School's Academic Integrity policies and procedures. Copyright refers to who owns the work (text, images, data, etc.) you are using. Copyright and Creative Common licenses tell you if you have permission to use the other person's work and ideas.
NOTE: Use the following guidelines when citing and referencing personal communications. See also the Explore more section at the bottom of this page.
Personal communications include emails, text messages, online chats or direct messages, personal interviews, telephone conversations, live speeches, unrecorded classroom lectures, memos, letters, messages from nonarchived discussion groups or online bulletin boards, and so on.
When quoting research participants, abide by any ethical agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity... Take care to obtain and respect participants’ consent to have their information included in your report. To disguise participant information, you may need to assign pseudonyms to participants,obscure identifying information, and / or present aggregate information.
NOTE: The interviewer is the person asking the questions and conducting the interview, and the interviewee is the person answering the questions and / or being interviewed. If the interview is recorded on a web site, blog, or podcast.
For unpublished interviews e.g. interviews by students for reports and / or assignments use the following. Because the interview is unpublished the whole bibliographic reference should be placed in ( ) brackets.
(Interviewer's surname, Initials. [Year, Month, date of the interview]. [Interview type: e.g. email, phone, personal] interview with Interviewee's surname initial.)
(Smith, J. 2018, September 12. personal interview with Bloggs, M.).
(Smith, J. 2018, September 12. phone interview with Bloggs, M.).
(Smith, J. 2018, September 12. email interview with Bloggs, M.).
"When we were young we went to the Mentone Picture Theatre every weekend to see the latest Hollywood movie. After the movie we would all rush around to the milk bar next store for a milkshake before going home" (Hoskins, 2018)
As part of my local history project I interviewed my grandmother. She remembered going to the Mentone Cinema every weekend to see a film before having a milkshare before going home. (Hoskins, 2018)
When interviewing people for reports and assignments it is important to behave ethically. For example:
For more details see the APA Code of ethics at https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/