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Mentone Girls' Grammar School | Kerferd Library

Senior School Referencing

Senior School help and support with academic integrity and referencing.

Source: Black, S. (2020).

In text referencing (also known as citations)

Updated for APA 7th edition

Senior School referencing | In text referencing: Introduction

APA StyleIn-text references (citations) and Reference lists (Bibliography) help you avoid plagiarism. When referencing the School uses APA 7th edition. APA is one of the more widely used referencing guidelines.

Use APA CiteMaker to build your references lists (bibliographies) as well as your in-text references (citations).

Referencing is a key part of the School's Academic Integrity policies and procedures. Copyright refers to who owns the work (text, images, data, etc.) you are using. Copyright and Creative Common licenses tell you if you have permission to use the other person's work and ideas.

Senior School referencing | In text referencing: General guidelines

  • "APA Style uses the author–date citation system, in which a brief in-text citation directs readers to a full reference list entry.
  • Each work cited must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix).
  • Both paraphrases and quotations require citations" (APA Style, n.d.)

Need more information? See the following examples, watch the video, or follow the Explore more links. See also:

Senior School referencing | In text referencing: Examples

There are two ways to enter in text citations or references. These are:

  • Parenthetical citation - The citation is enclosed in parenthesis.
  • Narrative citationThe authors or authors name is in the body of your text with the publication date and details enclosed in parenthesis.

While both are correct it helps to be consistent and stick with one approach. See the following examples sourced from the APA Style guidelines:

Author Type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two authors (Salas & D’Agostino, 2020) Salas and D’Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)

Group author with abbreviation

First citation

Subsequent citations


(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)


National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)

NIMH (2020)

Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

Source: Author–Date Citation System (APA Style guidelines, n.d.)

Senior School referencing | In text referencing: Explore more

Senior School referencing | In text referencing: Video

Film and videoTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.


In text reference / citation: Narrative citations: Scribbr (2020) Parenthetical citations: (Scribbr, 2020)
Bibliography / Reference list: Scribbr. (2020, January 23). The Basics of APA In-text Citations [Video]. YouTube.

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