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Russian Revolution | Consequences: Key figures
Lenin (British Library, n.d.)
* Who was Lenin? * What did Lenin do in his early years? * Who inspired Lenin? * What books did Lenin write? * When did Lenin come to power and what was his role in the October Revolution? * Lenin, State and Revolution: Communist Russia under Lenin
Vladimir Ilʹich Lenin (Ennker, 2014)
"Vladimir Il’ich Lenin was the founder and leader of the Bolshevik Party and of the Soviet state up until his death. Theoretically and practically he combined the strategy of a socialist revolution with imperialism and war. After thus successfully seizing power in Russia, he maintained control in the form of a “dictatorship of the proletariat” using extremely repressive politics." (Ennker, 2014)
Leon Trotsky (British Library, n.d.)
* Who was Leon Trotsky? * How did Trotsky become involved in the revolutionary movement? * What was Trotsky’s role in the 1905 Revolution? * What was Trotsky’s theory of ‘permanent revolution’? * How did Trotsky become a key figure in the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? * What role did Trotsky play during the first years of the Soviet state?
Leon Trotsky (Thatcher, 2014)
"Leon Trotsky's communist leadership was partially responsible for bringing about the October Revolution of 1917, after which Russia exited the First World War. Starting as an activist, he became People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs and People’s Commissar for War in the first Soviet government. Trotsky's commitment to international revolution clashed with Joseph Stalin’s theory of socialism for his country. He used his journalistic experiences on the front to inform his eventual leadership of the Red Army." (Thatcher, 2014)
Aleksandra Mikhaylovna Kollontay (Britannica High, n.d.)
"Aleksandra Mikhaylovna Kollontay, née Domontovich, Russian revolutionary who advocated radical changes in traditional social customs and institutions in Russia and who later, as a Soviet diplomat, became the first woman to serve as an accredited minister to a foreign country." (Britannica High, n.d.)
Joseph Stalin (Britannica High, n.d.)
"Secretary-general of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–53) and premier of the Soviet state (1941–53), who for a quarter of a century dictatorially ruled the Soviet Union and transformed it into a major world power." ("Joseph Stalin", n.d.)
Russian Revolution | Consequences: Key events
Constituent Assembly (Britannica High, n.d.)
"Constituent Assembly, Russian Uchreditelnoye Sobraniye, popularly elected body that convened in 1918 in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to write a constitution and form a government for postrevolutionary Russia." ("Constituent Assembly", n.d.)
Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, January 1918 (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 122-123)
"After the successful October coup in 1917, Lenin was even more determined not to allow elections to undermine the Bolsheviks’newly won power. However, there was an immediate problem. The October Revolution had come too late to prevent the elections to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly from going ahead in November as planned." (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 122)
Treaties of Brest-Litovsk (Britannica High, n.d.)
"Treaties of Brest-Litovsk, peace treaties signed at Brest-Litovsk (now in Belarus) by the Central Powers with the Ukrainian Republic (Feb. 9, 1918) and with Soviet Russia (March 3, 1918), which concluded hostilities between those countries during World War I. " ("Treaties of Brest-Litovsk", n.d.)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918 (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 124-127)
"Terms of the treaty: A huge slice of territory, amounting to a third of European Russia, stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea and including Ukraine, Russia’s major grain source, was ceded to Germany orits allies. The land lost by Russia – about a million square kilometres – contained a population of 45 million. Russia was required to pay 3 billion roubles in war reparations." (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 126)
Russian Civil War (Britannica High, n.d.)
"Russian Civil War, (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies." ("Russian Civil War", n.d.)
The Russian Civil War, 1918-20 (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 128-135)
"The crushing by the Bolsheviks of the Constituent Assembly inJanuary 1918, followed by their outlawing of all other parties, showedthat they were not prepared to share power. This bid for absoluteauthority made civil war highly likely, given that the Bolsheviks hadonly a limited grip on Russia in the early years after the OctoberRevolution." (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 128)
Russo-Polish War (Britannica High, n.d.)
"Russo-Polish War,... military conflict between Soviet Russia and Poland, which sought to seize Ukraine. It resulted in the establishment of the Russo-Polish border that existed until 1939." ("Russo-Polish War", n.d.)
Kronshtadt Rebellion (Britannica High, n.d.)
"Kronshtadt Rebellion, Kronshtadt also spelled Kronštadt,... one of several major internal uprisings against Soviet rule in Russia after the Civil War (1918–20)... It greatly influenced the Communist Party’s decision to undertake a program of economic liberalization to relieve the hardships suffered by the Russian population during the Civil War." ("Kronshtadt Rebellion", n.d.)
The Kronstadt Rising, 1921 (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 156-159)
"By February 1921, thousands of Petrograd workers had crossed to the naval base on Kronstadt. There they linked up with the sailors and dockyard workers to demonstrate for greater freedom. They demanded that in a workers’ state, which the Bolshevik government claimed Soviet Russia to be, the workers should be better, not worse, off than in tsarist times." (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 157)
New Economic Policy (Britannica High, n.d.)
"New Economic Policy (NEP), the economic policy of the government of the Soviet Union from 1921 to 1928, representing a temporary retreat from its previous policy of extreme centralization and doctrinaire socialism." ("New Economic Policy", n.d.)
The new economic policy (NEP), (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 160-165)
"As with the policy it replaced, the NEP was intended by Leninprimarily to meet Russia’s urgent need for food. Whatever the purity of the revolutionary theory behind war communism, ithad clearly failed to deliver the goods." (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 160)
Russian Revolution | Videos: Consequences
Lenin's Secret Files
A report on secret documents found in a bomb-proof vault that reveal the truth behind the myth of Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov, or Lenin. The revolutionary man of ideas and action committed to the communist cause also emerges as a man tormented by ill-health and subject to violent mood swings, and someone who ordered mass executions knowing that he had only a short time left to influence the Russian Revolution.
Russian Revolution | Consequences: Summaries and revision
From Autocracy to Communism - Russia, 1894-1941 by
Call Number: VCE Recommended text book 2002 ed.
Publication Date: 2008
The Access to History series is the most popular and trusted series for AS- and A-level history students. The new editions combine all the strengths of this well-loved series with a new design and features that allow all students access to the content and study skills needed to achieve examsuccess. This title draws on content from the bestselling titles Reaction and Revolution: Russia, 1894-1924 and Bolshevik and Stalinist Russia, 1918-56. It has been completely revised and updated to match the 2008 OCR AS specification and is now focused on the period from 1894 to 1941. It begins with thesituation in Russia under Tsar Nicholas II and then goes on to examine the causes and effects of the 1905 and 1917 revolutions, the Bolshevik struggle to gain power, and the eventual rise of Stalin. The political, economic, and social developments through this period and the effects of these are explored and analyzed throughout. Throughout the book key dates, terms, and issues are highlighted, and historical interpretations of key debates are outlined. Summary diagrams are included to consolidate knowledge and understanding of the period, and exam-style questions and tips written by an examiner for the OCR specification provide the opportunity to develop exam skills. VCAA recommended reading
The Bolsheviks in power in 'From Autocracy to Communism : Russia 1894-1941', (Waller, 2012, pp. 116-143)
* The problems confronting the Bolsheviks * Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, January 1918 * The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918 * The Russian Civil War, 1918–20 * The Foreign Interventions, 1918–20.
Lenin’s Revolution 1917–24 in ‘From Autocracy to Communism : Russia 1894-1941’, (Lynch & Woodward, 2008, pp. 144-180.)
* The Red Terror * War Communism, 1918–21 * The Kronstadt Rising, 1921 * The New Economic Policy (NEP) * The Shaping of Soviet Society under Lenin * Lenin’s Role as a Revolutionary * Interpreting the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution | Consequences: Curriculum alignment
Consequences of revolution
- "How did the consequences of revolution shape the new order?
- How did the new regime consolidate its power?
- How did the revolution affect the experiences of those who lived through it?
- To what extent was society changed and revolutionary ideas achieved?"
Victorian Certification of Education, History, Study Design 2016-2020 (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2015, p. 64.)