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Source: Martin Luther King, Jr. (centre), with other civil rights supporters at the March on Washington, D.C., in August 1963. Encyclopædia Britannica (2019).
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Brief, basic information laid out in an easy-to-read format. May use informal language. (Includes most news articles)
Provides additional background information and further reading. Introduces some subject-specific language.
Lengthy, detailed information. Frequently uses technical/subject-specific language. (Includes most analytical articles)
Students will understand how oppressions is formed through the means of government/social convention. Students will also understand how leaders, ideas, movements and events can transform a country from one of oppression into one of greater liberty and justice.
- How do governments control people?
- Why do they control people?
- How does an idea create a movement?
- What circumstances lead to a popular movement?
- How does a citizenry move against a powerful opposition?
- What makes a good leader?
- What morals and ethics underpin a successful movement?
Rights and Freedom | Summaries and revision
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Section 1 The ‘open door’ policy and immigration, to 1928. (Kerr, 2018, pp. 3-11)
"By 1900, the USA was a multi-ethnic society. It was hoped that immigrants from different nationalities and cultures would soon lose their old identities and all mix together to become ‘Americans’. That was the ‘melting pot’ idea. In reality, the different ethnic groups did not blend together, perhaps because of prejudice." (Kerr, 2018, p. 3)
Section 2 ‘Separate but equal’, to 1945. (Kerr, 2018, pp. 12-45)
* Chapter 3 Changing attitudes to immigrants after 1918 * Chapter 4 The ‘Jim Crow’ laws * Chapter 5 The attitudes and activities of the Ku Klux Klan * Chapter 6 Escape to the North?
Section 3 Civil rights campaigns. (Kerr, 2018, pp. 46-79)
* Chapter 7 The demand for civil rights after 1945 * Chapter 8 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and Martin Luther King Jr * Chapter 9 Little Rock * Chapter 10 Sit-ins and Freedom Rides * Chapter 11 Birmingham, Alabama 1963 * Chapter 12 ‘I Have a Dream’
Section 4 The ghettos and black American radicalism. (Kerr, 2018, pp. 80-102)
* Chapter 13 Voting rights in 1965 * Chapter 14 Black radicals and Black Power * Chapter 15 The problem of the ghettos
CASE STUDY 1: The Civil Rights Movement in the United States 1954–1965 (Scott-Baumann, 2015, pp. 11-118.)
* Chapter 1 Racism and white supremacy * Chapter 2 Protests and action: from Montgomery to the Civil Rights Act * Chapter 3 The achievements of the Civil Rights Movement
Chapter 3: The achievements of the Civil Rights Movement (Scott-Baumann, 2015, pp. 77-118.)
"This chapter assesses the passing and the impact of the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act and examines the importance of the Selma campaign in the passing of the latter. It explores the nature and success of the SNCC’s campaign in Mississippi, particularly the Freedom Summer of 1964. It then evaluates the career of Malcolm X. Finally, the importance of Martin Luther King Jr in the Civil Rights Movement is debated. (Scott-Baumann, 2015, pp. 77-118.)
CASE STUDY 2: Apartheid South Africa 1948–1964 (Scott-Baumann, 2015, pp. 119-239.)
* Chapter 4 The creation of the apartheid state * Chapter 5 The development of apartheid 1948–64 * Chapter 6 Protests and action up to 1964
Section 1: The response to apartheid, c.1948–59 (Clements, 2018, pp. 6-26)
* Race, segregation and discrimination * Afrikaner culture and politics * Reasons for the National Party victory in 1948 * Implementing apartheid: Strengthening the National Party * Pass laws and education * Political suppression and the Treason Trial * African nationalism, 1948–59: Political opposition in 1948 * The Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC)
Section 2: Radicalisation of resistance and the consolidation of National Party Power, 1960–68 (Clements, 2018, pp. 26-44)
* Government reactions to radicalised resistance, 1960–61 * Creating a republic, 1960–61
African nationalist radicalisation, 1961–68 * The Rivonia Trial and significance for Mandela
The impact of exile and imprisonment on the ANC and PAC * Strengthening ‘separate development’, 1961–68: Economic recovery * Strengthening ‘separate development’, 1961–68: The impact on black Africans
Section 3 Redefining resistance and challenges to National Party power, 1968–83 (Clements, 2018, pp. 44-64)
* Steve Biko and the South African Students’ Organisation (SASO) * The suppression and significance of the Soweto uprising * The decline and re-strengthening of the ANC * The role of Oliver Tambo * Domestic challenges to National Party power, 1974–83: Political unrest * Increasing pressures on the National Party governments * Political change in Southern Africa * International condemnation and calls for economic sanctions
Section 4: The end of apartheid and the creation of the ‘rainbow nation’, 1984–94 (Clements, 2018, pp. 64-81)
* Revolt in the townships, 1984–87 * Government suppression * Reasons for Botha’s decision to negotiate, 1985–89
Economic problems * Negotiation and compromise, 1989–91: De Klerk’s ‘New Course’ * The impact of unrest and violence * Continued pressures on a new political settlement, 1992–94 * Constitutional agreement and elections