Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Source: Black, S. (2019).
When accessing content use the numbers below to guide you:
Brief, basic information laid out in an easy-to-read format. May use informal language. (Includes most news articles)
Provides additional background information and further reading. Introduces some subject-specific language.
Lengthy, detailed information. Frequently uses technical/subject-specific language. (Includes most analytical articles)
Students understand the significant challenges and developments faced by the society that caused progress or decline, including the Reformation, Renaissance and Age of Exploration.
- What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies?
- Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: General reading
Scientific Methods (Kuligowski, 2013, p. 13.)
"Humanists believed that all knowledge could be found in the ancient writings. They agreed with the classical scholars. They believed that logic alone could explain truths. But, some Renaissance scientists did not accept the theories they read. They wanted to observe nature and experiment for themselves." (Kuligowski, 2013, p. 13.)
Science in the Renaissance by
Publication Date: 2009
Follow along as the greatest minds of the time make enormous leaps and bounds toward enlightened thinking. Learn how the role of a scientist evolved. See the efforts made to increase man's understanding of the natural universe.
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Tycho Brahe
Tycho Brahe - Astronomer
Tycho Brahe (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
The Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) was a pioneer in developing astronomical instruments and in measuring and fixing the positions of stars. His observations included a comprehensive study of the solar system and accurate positions of more than 777 fixed stars. ("Tycho Brahe", n.d.)
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Jerome Cardan
Jerome Cardan - Mathematician, Astronomer and Physician
Jerome Cardan (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
Italian Renaissance mathematician, astrologer, and physician Jerome Cardan (1501–76) wrote more than 130 books on topics ranging from anatomy to philosophy. His Ars magna (The Great Art; or, The Rules of Algebra) is one of the cornerstones in the history of algebra. ("Jerome Cardan", n.d.)
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus - Astronomer
Nicolaus Copernicus (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
"The Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) is often considered the founder of modern astronomy. His study led to his theory that Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun." ("Nicolaus Copernicus", n.d.)
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei - Philosopher, Astronomer and Mathematician
Galileo Galilei (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
Modern physics owes its beginning to Galileo (1564–1642), who was the first astronomer to use a telescope. Galileo helped disprove much of the medieval thinking in science. ("Galileo Galilei", n.d.)
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg - Engineer and inventor of the printing press
"Gutenberg’s development of a movable type printing press allowed for the inexpensive and efficient creation of printed literature. This helped spread new ideas and educate common people. Within decades of Gutenberg’s death, the dissemination of printed material gave rise to the Reformation and later led to other reforms." (Hook, 2010, p. 101.)
Johannes Gutenberg (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
"German craftsman Johannes Gutenberg (1395?–1468) is believed to have developed the first printing press. His press made printing practical, and his method of using movable metal type endured almost unchanged for five centuries." ("Johannes Gutenberg", n.d.)
Johannes Gutenberg: Printing Press Innovator by
Publication Date: 2009
This title examines the remarkable life of Johannes Gutenberg and his innovation of the printing press. Readers will learn about Gutenberg's background and education, as well as his creation of the Gutenberg Bible for the Catholic Church. Color photos, detailed maps, and informative sidebars accompany easy-to-read, compelling text. Features include a timeline, facts, additional resources, web sites, a glossary, a bibliography, and an index.
Johannes Gutenberg and the Printing Press by
Publication Date: 2008
Can one invention really change the world? Before the mid-fifteenth century, books were printed by hand, making them rare and expensive. Reading and learning remained a privilege of the wealthy--until Johannes Gutenberg developed a machine called the printing press. Gutenberg, a German metalworker, began in the 1440s by making movable type--small metal letters that were arranged to form words and sentences, replacing handwritten letters. Movable type fit into frames on the printing press, and the press then produced many copies of the same page. As movable type and the printing press made book production much faster and less expensive, reading material of all kinds became available to a far wider audience. In Gutenberg's time, Europe was already on the brink of a new age--an explosion of world exploration, scientific discoveries, and political and religious changes. Gutenberg's printing press helped propel Europe into the modern era, and his legacy remains in the thousands of books and newspapers printed each year to keep us informed, entertained, and connected. Indeed, Gutenberg's development of the printing press became one of history's pivotal moments.
The invention of the printing press and its impact on Renaissance society. (International School History, 2015
When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: International School History (2015) or (International School History, 2015)
Bibliography / Reference list: International School History, (2015). The invention of the printing press, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/s4PgEWf1Iqk
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Johannes Kepler
Johannes Kepler - Astronomer and Astrologer
Johannes Kepler (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
"The Renaissance astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) is best known for his discovery that the orbits in which the Earth and the other planets of the solar system travel around the Sun are elliptical, or oval, in shape. He was also the first to explain correctly how human beings see and to demonstrate what happens to light when it enters a telescope." ("Johannes Kepler", n.d.)
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Luca Pacioli
Luca Pacioli - Mathematician
Luca Pacioli (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
"Italian mathematician and friar Luca Pacioli (1445–1514?) is considered the originator of double-entry bookkeeping. He was also one of the first to systematize the study of number theory and games of chance." ("Luca Pacioli", n.d.)
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Science & Technology: Andreas Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius, Flemish physician and surgeon
Andreas Vesalius (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
Andreas Vesalius was a Renaissance physician who revolutionized the study of biology and the practice of medicine by his careful description of the anatomy of the human body. Basing his observations on dissections he made himself, he wrote and illustrated the first comprehensive textbook of anatomy.