Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Source: Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door. (Pauwels, 1872).
When accessing content use the numbers below to guide you:
Brief, basic information laid out in an easy-to-read format. May use informal language. (Includes most news articles)
Provides additional background information and further reading. Introduces some subject-specific language.
Lengthy, detailed information. Frequently uses technical/subject-specific language. (Includes most analytical articles)
Students understand the significant challenges and developments faced by the society that caused progress or decline, including the Reformation, Renaissance and Age of Exploration.
- What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies?
- Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Ideas & Beliefs: general reading
Great Ideas of the Renaissance by
Publication Date: 2009
Great Ideas of the Renaissance surveys the major advances that were made in art, architecture, sculpture, science, medicine, transportation, and culture. Merchants, monarchs, and religious leaders all promoted and encouraged creativity, and artists, scientists, and great thinkers pushed back the frontiers of philosophy, the arts, mathematics, and technology.
Religion in the Renaissance by
Publication Date: 2009-08-01
Religion in the Renaissance features the growth and dominance of the Catholic Church in northern Europe, its influence on art and architecture, and how it was eventually challenged and by whom. Other religions were at best accepted but mostly suppressed, threatened, or violently overthrown. Kings and queens working with the Church dominated the political scene.
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Ideas & Beliefs: Humanism
Humanism (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
Humanism was a movement that arose during the 14th century in Italy. It involved a revival of study of the ancient Latin and Greek authors in order to learn about them for their own sake, to see them in their proper historical context. ("Humanism", n.d.)
Understand Humanism by
Publication Date: 2010
Understand Humanism is the definitive introduction to this diverse and increasingly prominent philosophy. This guide teaches you everything you need to know about humanism, from it's ancient origins and key figures, to humanist answers to pressing modern issues, like climate change and identity politics. One, five and ten-minute introductions to key principles to get you started. Tests in the book and online to keep track of your progress.
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Ideas & Beliefs: Protestant Reformation
The Reformation: A Religious Revolution by
Publication Date: 2012
During the 1500s, religious change came to Europe and people began to question the beliefs and practices of Catholicism. With this intriguing book, introduce readers to the changes that people like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII wanted during the Reformation. Through captivating images, stunning facts, easy-to-read text, and engaging sidebars, readers will gain insight into issues of that time, including social order, indulgences, and the development of Protestantism. This book also includes text features like a table of contents, glossary, and index, as well as an in-class writing activity to further students' understanding of the printing press during the Reformation.
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Ideas & Beliefs: Desiderius Erasmus
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Ideas & Beliefs: Martin Luther
Martin Luther (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
"The Protestant Reformation in Germany was inaugurated by Martin Luther in 1517. It was his intent to reform the medieval Roman Catholic church, but the firm resistance of the church to Luther’s challenge led instead to permanent divisions in the structure of Western Christianity" ("Martin Luther", n.d.)
Martin Luther: A Reforming Spirit by
Publication Date: 2012
In the 1500s, a man named Martin Luther saw problems in the way the Roman Catholic Church was run. He argued against the teachings of the Church during a time when doing so was punishable by death. With this captivating biography, readers can learn about Martin Luther's courageous and honorable life as he fought against the Catholic church and ideals, and strived for Protestant Reformation. Through easy-to-read text, intriguing facts, and striking images, readers will be engaged while learning about concepts such as Luther's Ninety-Five Theses and the Black Cloister Monastery.
Renaissance Italy and the Reformation | Ideas & Beliefs: Petrarch
Petrarch - poet and humanists
Petrarch (Britannica Middle, n.d.)
"The light of the Renaissance dawned upon the Middle Ages in the person of the Italian poet and scholar Francesco Petrarca, more commonly known as Petrarch.The light of the Renaissance dawned upon the Middle Ages in the person of the Italian poet and scholar Francesco Petrarca, more commonly known as Petrarch. Through his fascination with, and intense study of, the writings of ancient Greece and Rome, he became convinced there was a continuity between classical culture and Christianity. By trying to weave the two together into a common tradition, Petrarch became the founder of humanism." ("Petrarch", n.d.)
Petrarch (poets.org, n.d.)
"Known for his work reviving interest in classical literature, Petrarch is considered the “father of Humanism," an attitude associated with the flourishing of the Renaissance." ("Petrarch", n.d.)