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Mentone Girls' Grammar School | Kerferd Library

Australia at war (1914 – 1945): World War II: Places & Events

Year 10 History: The modern world and Australia

Source: View of the Battleship California (BB 44) during the Pearl Harbor Attack on 7 December 1941. (National Museum of Naval Aviation, Emil Buehler Library, 1941).

Referencing Notice Don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For help see the Junior School or Senior School referencing guides, and / or CiteMaker.
Resource Key

When accessing content use the numbers below to guide you:

LEVEL

Brief, basic information laid out in an easy-to-read format. May use informal language. (Includes most news articles)

LEVEL

Provides additional background information and further reading. Introduces some subject-specific language.

Level 3 resourceLEVEL

Lengthy, detailed information. Frequently uses technical/subject-specific language. (Includes most analytical articles)

General Capabilities

Enduring Understandings
  • What was the context that allowed World War II to occur?
  • How did the conflict during World War II change the shape of society today?
  • How do I assess the reliability and usefulness of a source?
  • How do I attribute my sources of information correctly

World War II | Pacific War: Introduction

Level 1Articles

World War II | Pacific War: Places & Events

Level 1Location
Japanese map of the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. Source: Japanese map of the attack on Pearl Harbor, (pearlharbor.org, 2011)

Pearl Harbor, located on the island of Oahu in Hawaii is a major base for the American Navy.

Background

On the 7th of December 1941 the Japanese Imperial Navy launched an areal surprise attack on the base at Pearl Harbor. "The Pearl Harbor attack, unannounced beforehand by the Japanese..., unified the American public and swept away any remaining support for American neutrality in the war. On December 8 the U.S. Congress declared war on Japan with only one dissenting vote." (Alisha, 2016, p. 80)

Level 1Articles

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Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Featuring footage from the U.S. Navy, this newsreel depicts the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. (The Atlantic, 2017)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: (The Atlantic, (2017) or (The Atlantic, 2018)
Bibliography / Reference list: The Atlantic, (2017). Original Pearl Harbor News Footage, [eVideo]. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/A2kSnlS4xX8

(31 Dec 1941) Japanese Attack Pearl Harbour; US and Japan at War In Pacific. On December 7, 1941, without warning, and while their envoys are at a peace conference in Washington, the Japanese bomb the US base at Diamond Head in Hawaii causing severe loss of lives and property. President Roosevelt pronounces it "a date that will live in infamy" and the US declares war on Japan. America's fleet makes contact with the enemy west of Hawaii, sinking a carrier and several submarines. Meanwhile, Japanese warships and planes attack US outposts of Guam and Wake Island, and Japanese troops are on the move in the Far East, in Thailand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Malaya. All US forces in the Pacific are mobilized, and the entire American nation unites in resolve to fight the aggressor and achieve ultimate victory. (AP Archive, 2015)

Source

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In text reference / citation: (AP Archive, (2015) or (AP Archive, 2015)
Bibliography / Reference list: AP Archive, (2015). Japanese Attack Pearl Harbour; US and Japan at War In Pacific, [eVideo]. AP Archive. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BL4AKu0Q33Q

Level 1Location
Fall of Singapore Source: Fall of Singapore, (Department of Veterans' Affairs, n.d.)

Singapore is located at the southern end of the Malay Peninsula on the Singapore Straits which is near the Strait of Malacca, a major shipping lane connecting Asia with the Indian ocean. At the start of World War II Singapore was a strategic British colony.

Background

"Singapore was the major British base in the Pacific and had been regarded as unassailable due to its strong seaward defenses. The Japanese took it with comparative ease by advancing down the Malay Peninsula and then assaulting the base’s landward side, which the British had left inadequately defended." (Alisha, 2016) This left Australia vulnerable and open to attack by the imperial Japanese armed forces.

Level 1Articles

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Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Australians In Singapore.

Source

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In text reference / citation: British Pathé (1941) or (British Pathé, 1941)
Bibliography / Reference list: British Pathé (1941). Australians In Singapore (1941), [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fuY-CwkvhZM

February 15 2017 marked the 75th anniversary of the fall of Singapore in World War II. It also effectively marks the rise of the US-Australia strategic relationship. So what led to the event Winston Churchill called "the worst disaster and the greatest capitulation in British history"? Read more here: http://ab.co/2kuuubv

Source

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In text reference / citation: ABC (2017) or (ABC, 2017)
Bibliography / Reference list: ABC (2017). The fall of Singapore explained., [eVideo]. ABC. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/sIB7hbrZj7c

Level 1Location

​Changi is an area located on the eastern side of Singapore island. It is the location of the Changi prison and the former British Selarang army barracks, both of which were used as prisoner of war (POW) camps by the Japanese during World War II.Locations in South East Asia where Australians were captured,

Background

"During the Pacific war, the Japanese captured 22,000 Australians: soldiers, sailors, airmen and members of the army nursing service, as well as some civilians. They were imprisoned in camps throughout Japanese-occupied territories in Borneo, Korea, Manchuria, Hainan, Rabaul, Ambon, Singapore, Timor, Java, Thailand, Burma and Vietnam and also Japan itself. At the end of the war only 13,872 of the POWs were recovered: one-third of the prisoners had died." (Department of Veteran Affairs, n.d.)

Source: Locations in South East Asia where Australians were captured, (Department of Veterans' Affairs, n.d.)

Level 1 resourceOnline Resources

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Note: There is no sound on this video.

Changi prison camp, Singapore. Shows the type of dwellings in which POW were housed, cooking and washing facilities and the condition of the troops generally after their long period as prisoners. The cheerful spirit on the part of the victims is also illustrated in the film. (Australian War Memorial, 2017)

Source

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In text reference / citation: Australian War Memorial (2017) or (Australian War Memorial, 2017)
Australian War Memorial (2017). POW's in Changi prison camp, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fwrcpH_WK1Y

This short film details the statistics of Australian POWs and civilian internees over the years and examines the prisoner experience from the Boer War to the Korean War. (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016) or (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)
Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016). Australian Prisoners of War (Part 1), [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/Zg4zrReTw6s

Examines the shock of capture for Australians, with first-hand accounts describing the physical circumstances of internment, and the feelings of defeat and depression that can overwhelm the person who has just become a prisoner of war. (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016) or (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)
Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016). Australian Prisoners of War (Part 2), [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/XXk5jWwJUJQ

This short film proposes that, after capture, in some cases there was friction and resentment towards the officers from the enlisted men. It illustrates that two of the great challenges of camp life were the maintenance of discipline and keeping boredom at bay, and it shows how the prisoners used lessons, debates and sport to keep their minds and bodies as active as they could. (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016) or (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)
Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016). Australian Prisoners of War (Part 3) Life in the camps, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/z6guuCqwh5c

This short film explores the relationships that existed between guards and Australian POWs. Far from being straightforward, these relationships were often complex. The film examines the occasional compassion felt by both sides for the other, as well as the more brutal behaviour exhibited by some guards and its legacy in the memories of POWs. (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016) or (Department of Veterans' Affairs, 2016)
Department of Veterans' Affairs (2016). Australian Prisoners of War (Part 4) Guards, civilians and internees, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/yquMbEjD6hY

Level 1Location
Japanese aircraft attacked these northern Australian airfields during 1942-1943. Source: Australia under attack, (Department of Veterans' Affairs, n.d.)

Darwin, Northern Territory.

Background

"In early 1942, Darwin was used as a military base and as a transit point for forces and aircraft being sent to Timor, Ambon and Java (modern Indonesia) before these islands fell to the Japanese.. On 19 February 1942, Darwin suffered its first and most devastating air raid. The Japanese had assessed that the base threatened the success of their operations against Timor and Java." (Department of Veterans' Affairs, n.d.)

Level 2Audio books

Desmond Anthony Stephen 'Des' Lambert, as a Private, 2nd Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery, interviewed by Jane Fleming about the Darwin bombing raids for The Keith Murdoch Sound Archive of Australia in the War of 1939-1945.
Source: Australian War Memorial

Level 1 resourceOnline Resources

Level 3 resource

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Japs Raid Port Darwin

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: British Pathé (1942) or (British Pathé, 1942)
Bibliography / Reference list: British Pathé (1942). Japs Raid Port Darwin (1942), [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/L-tgfA35WdU

This section is under contruction

This section is under contruction

Level 1Location
Map of the Burma Railway Source: Death Railway map, (W.wolny, n.d.)

Burma Thai border region.

Background

"The Burma-Thailand railway (known also as the Burma–Thailand or Burma–Siam railway) was built in 1942–43. Its purpose was to supply the Japanese forces in Burma, bypassing the sea routes which had become vulnerable when Japanese naval strength was reduced in the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway in May and June 1942... Aiming to finish the railway as quickly as possible the Japanese decided to use the more than 60 000 Allied prisoners who had fallen into their hands in early 1942." (Department of Veterans' Affairs, n.d.)

Level 1Articles

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Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

This film was unused by British Pathé editors of the time and not screened in cinemas. (British Pathé, 1945)

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: British Pathé (1945) or (British Pathé, 1945)
Bibliography / Reference list: British Pathé (1945). Burma Death Railway (1945) | Unissued Nº25 (1945), [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/M-I9VI7u4Y4

Level 1Location
Kokoda Track Source: Kokoda Track, (Kokoda Track Authority, n.d.)

The Kokoda track is located to the north of Australia in Papua New Guinea. The track crossed the rugged Owen Stanley Ranges and provides access from the north of Papua New Guinea to Port Moresby on the south coast.

Background

"The Japanese, rather than invading Australia, adopted a strategy of isolating it. They planned to attempt to blockade supply lines with the United States in an operation known as the FS Operation, under which Japan would invade New Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji, and other islands in the South Pacific... The Japanese planned to form a defensive ring around the Greater East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere and did not want Australia or Papua to be used as a base for an American counter-attack against their recently won territory... The Kokoda campaign fought between July and November 1942 was part of a larger campaign fought in Papua... During the four-month long campaign, more than 600 Australians were killed or died along the Kokoda Track and over 1,600 were wounded" (James K., 2009)

Level 1Articles

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Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Source

When using this video don't forget to cite and reference your sources. For more information and help see the Kerferd Library referencing guide and / or CiteMaker.
In text reference / citation: British Pathé (1943) or (British Pathé, 1943)
Bibliography / Reference list: British Pathé (1943). With The Australians In New Guinea (1943), [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/ppIRy9Aj5WM

This section is under contruction

Hiroshima Nagasaki Atom Bombing map 1945 Source: Department of Energy [USA], (The Manhattan Project)

Location

Hiroshima is located on the Japanese island of Honshu on the Inland Sea

Level 1Articles

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Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

Hear first-hand accounts from the air and ground, re-telling every memory from the day the world first witnessed the horrors of atomic warfare. (BBC, 2017)

Source

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In text reference / citation: BBC (2017) or (BBC, 2017)
BBC (2007). Hiroshima: Dropping The Bomb , [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/3wxWNAM8Cso

Accounts of the American justification for dropping a second bomb in Nagasaki. (BBC, 2007)

Source

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In text reference / citation: BBC (2007) or (BBC, 2007)
BBC (2007). Atomic bombing of Nagasaki , [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/ncq_Wye43TM

The scale of the after affects from the bomb came as a shocking surprise, and the Radiation sickness suffered by many became the single most disturbing legacy of the conflict. (BBC, 2017)

Source

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In text reference / citation: BBC (2017) or (BBC, 2017)
BBC (2007). Harrowing Aftermath Of Atomic Bomb - Hiroshima, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/n7fT6Mur6Gg

This section is under contruction

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Japanese soldiers and civilians alike are being trained to attack American troops. Truman offers a fateful ultimatum at the Potsdam conference. (BBC, 2017)

Source

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In text reference / citation: BBC (2017) or (BBC, 2017)
BBC (2007). Truman's Ultimatum Regarding Hiroshima, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/ZEO7pddV9fk

Japan after World War Two. Peace agreements between Japan and the victorious are made. They surrendered unconditionally. (British Pathé, 1945)

Source

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In text reference / citation: British Pathé (1945) or (British Pathé, 1945)
Bibliography / Reference list: British Pathé (1945). The Day Japan Lost Face, [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/4bwzBlOPl50

Level 1 resourceFilm and videoUsing YouTube on campus help and instructionsTo view this video on campus remember to first login to your school Google account using your mConnect username and password. Click here for more help on using YouTube on campus.

"Clips from the Tokyo Trial (1946-49), at which the principal defendant was Hideki Tojo" (Robert H. Jackson Center, 2019)

Source

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In text reference / citation: Robert H. Jackson Center (2019) or (Robert H. Jackson Center, 2019)
Robert H. Jackson Center (2019). Tokyo Trial (1946-49), [eVideo]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/3Qahacxji38

World War II | Bombing of Darwin 1942 image gallery

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Roy Hodgkinson, (1942) Unit: HMAS Katoomba, charcoal, watercolour, goauche on paper, item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

"The SS Neptuna was bombed whilst berthed at the Darwin Jetty... Directly in front of the explosion the tiny Vigilant can be seen doing rescue work. In the foreground is the SS Zealandia which was dive bombed and which eventually foundered." (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Ray Honisett, (1984) Units: 2/1 Australian Hospital Ship Manunda, HMAS Deloraine. Painting. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

"Air raid, harbour; HMAS Deloraine." (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942) Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

"The SS Neptuna was bombed whilst berthed at the Darwin Jetty. The ship was loaded with mixed cargo and depth charges, it caught alight and eventually blew up. Directly in front of the explosion the tiny Vigilant can be seen doing rescue work." (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942) Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

The SS Zealandia, an munitions ship, on fire in Darwin Harbour after being fired upon by Japanese aerial bombers. (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Frank Bagnall, (1942) Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

The first raid on Darwin, 19 February 1942. (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942) Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

"Japanese bombs landing inland and along the foreshore of Darwin harbour during the first air raid." (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942). Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

Ships ablaze in the harbour during the first air raid on Darwin. (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942) Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

A house on Myilly Point damaged by the air raid (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942) Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

"Australian troops inspect bomb damage caused by Japanese air raids." (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Geoffrey McInnes, (1942) Unit: Darwin Fortress. Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

Burnt out shop caused by the Darwin air raids. (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942). Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

The Darwin wharf was extensively damaged by the air raid. Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942). Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

Wreck of the tanker SS British Motorist, sunk in the Japanese air raid of Darwin. (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: McNeil, (1942). Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

Troops clearing away the wreckage after the Japanese air raid on Darwin. Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

Darwin Bombing raid, 19 February 1942

First air-raid on Australia, 19 February 1942

Source: Anonymous, (1942). Black & white - Film copy negative. Item copyright: © Australian War Memorial. This item is licensed under CC BY-NC

What was left of an Australian Douglas dive bomber in its hanger after Royal Australian Air Force installations were attacked in the Japanese air raid on Darwin. (Australian War Memorial, n.d.)

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